Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Commonly referred to as broadband, this is a type of broadband used to connect to the internet. ADSL allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines, when compared to traditional modem lines. A special filter, called a micro filter, is installed on a subscriber's telephone line to allow both ADSL and regular voice (telephone) services to be used at the same time.
Auxiliary Lines are Multi Lines that provide a single phone number across a group of between two and 200 lines. They let incoming calls be routed to the first available line or be routed cyclically using all the lines in the group in turn. It supports more than one incoming or outgoing call simultaneously and offers a residential or business telephone directory listing.
Bearer is what the line and equipment an ISDN30e is delivered over.
‘Bring Into Service’ is the final step on an ISDN30e New Provide order where Openreach will bring the circuit into service. This is actioned after the installation work has been completed.
- Block Terminal
Block Terminals are used for security to run an alarm line through. These are normally installed by Openreach though are not maintained by Openreach. An NTE should be fitted before the Block Terminal as this is a demarcation point for testing.
- Care Level Agreement
Care Level Agreements range from 1 to 4 and Openreach aim to respond to faults within the timescale allocated within the care level.
‘Conscious Decision To Appoint’ is an acronym to confirm that the customer is aware of potential charges if an engineer attends the site and proves that there is no fault with the line.
Channels are found on ISDN systems and the amount of channels will indicate the number of calls that can be made at any one time.
Calling Line Identification (CLI) is a telephone service, available in analog and digital telephone systems, including VoIP, that transmits a caller's telephone number to the called party's telephone equipment when the call is being set up.
Caller ID (caller identification, CID), also called calling line identification (CLID), Calling Line Identification (CLI), calling number delivery (CND), calling number identification (CNID), calling line identification presentation (CLIP), or call display, is a telephone service, available in analog and digital telephone systems, including VoIP, that transmits a caller's telephone number to the called party's telephone equipment when the call is being set up. The caller ID service may include the transmission of a name associated with the calling telephone number, in a service called CNAM.
‘Calling Line Identity Presentation’ allows the customer to receive and display the calling party’s line identity (CLI or telephone number) before answering the call. The called party will only receive this information if the caller has no restricted the sending of their number and if they have subscribed to the CLIP service. Also known as ‘Caller Display’ on PSTN or analogue lines
‘Calling Line Identity Restriction’ allows a customer to restrict their calling line identity (CLI) to not be displayed at any time. This can also be done on a "per call" basis by dialling the "1470" prefix before making a call
This is vital for raising any fault. The engineer should ring ahead to the contact and they should be present when the engineer attends the site to confirm that the line is working. It is important that the contact is always someone on site
‘Customer Premises Equipment’ is equipment belonging to the customer on site (e.g. PBX, Telephone, Fax Machine etc.).
‘Carrier Pre Select’ is a way of routing calls on behalf of a customer over a particular communications provider. This is done at the exchange, so no codes are needed to be dialled.
‘Direct Dial Inward’ is an extension on an ISDN system. These are physical lines internally after the main socket.
- Demarcation Point
Demarcation Point is where Openreach will maintain the line to. This is typically an NTE or NTTP socket on the wall. This is where testing should be performed before raising a line fault.
‘Distribution Point’ is the point at which single telephone lines are taken from a bundle to a premise.
- Driver Circuits
When there are multiple orders for the same customer or premise (regardless of product type PSTN, ISDN2, ISDN30), the first order that is built on the Openreach system become what is commonly known as a driver circuit/lead order. If any line plant work is required to be completed to provide the services, all the work is completed and associated charges are applied to the driver circuit/lead order and as the order progresses all other secondary orders for the customer/premise would also progress in conjunction with the driver circuit/lead order. However, should the driver circuit/lead order be cancelled all associated work and charges would transfer onto the secondary order. Also should any delays be encountered with the driver circuit/lead order, it would also affect the progress of the secondary orders and will continue to be delayed until it has been resolved on the driver circuit/lead order. Finally, if the driver circuit/lead order is with another service provider the customer would need to contact the concerned service provider as we are unable to obtain any order information due to the Data Protection Act.
- Dual Tone
Dual Tone is a line that supports both Pulse and Tone dialling
‘Excess Construction Charges’ are raised when additional infrastructure is required to provide new or extended service at a customer’s site.
‘Estimated Response Time’ is when Openreach schedule to attend a site to attempt to clear a fault.
‘Exchange Service Features’ are features added to the line at the exchange to provide additional services for a customer. An example of this is Call Divert CLI Presentation
- Fault Location
‘Fault Location’ is an indicator as to where a potential fault may lie. Different engineers deal with different locations on a fault
Fibre to the cabinet (FTTC) is a connectivity technology that is based on a combination of fibre optic cable and copper cable.
Fiber to the curb/cabinet (FTTC) is a telecommunications system based on fiber-optic cables run to a platform that serves several customers. Each of these customers has a connection to this platform via coaxial cable or twisted pair. The "curb" is an abstraction and can just as easily mean a pole-mounted device or communications closet or shed. Typically any system terminating fiber within 1,000 ft (300 m) of the customer premises equipment would be described as FTTC.
Fiber to the node or neighborhood (FTTN), sometimes identified with and sometimes distinguished from fiber to the cabinet (FTTC), is a telecommunication architecture based on fiber-optic cables run to a cabinet serving a neighborhood. Customers typically connect to this cabinet using traditional coaxial cable or twisted pair wiring. The area served by the cabinet is usually less than one mile in radius and can contain several hundred customers. (If the cabinet serves an area of less than 1,000 ft (300 m) in radius, the architecture is typically called FTTC/FTTK.)
FTTN allows delivery of broadband services such as high-speed internet. High-speed communications protocols such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of digital subscriber line (DSL) are used between the cabinet and the customers. Data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer is to the cabinet.
Unlike FTTP, FTTN often uses existing coaxial or twisted-pair infrastructure to provide last mile service and is thus less costly to deploy. In the long term, however, its bandwidth potential is limited relative to implementations that bring the fiber still closer to the subscriber.
A variant of this technique for cable television providers is used in a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) system. It is sometimes given the acronym FTTLA (fiber-to-the-last-amplifier) when it replaces analog amplifiers up to the last one before the customer (or neighborhood of customers).
FTTC allows delivery of broadband services such as high-speed internet. Usually existing wire is used with communications protocols such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of DSL connecting the curb/cabinet and the customers. In these protocols, the data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer is to the cabinet.
Where it is feasible to run new cable, both fiber and copper ethernet are capable of connecting the "curb" with a full 100Mbit/s or 1Gbit/s connection. Even using relatively cheap outdoor category 5 copper over thousands of feet, all ethernet protocols including power over Ethernet (PoE) are supported. Most fixed wireless technologies rely on PoE, including Motorola Canopy, which has low-power radios capable of running on a 12VDC power supply fed over several hundred feet of cable.
Power line networking deployments also rely on FTTC. Using the IEEE P1901 protocol (or its predecessor HomePlug AV) existing electric service cables move up to 1Gbit/s from the curb/pole/cabinet into every AC electrical outlet in the home—coverage equivalent to a robust Wi-Fi implementation, with the added advantage of a single cable for power and data.
By avoiding new cable and its cost and liabilities, FTTC costs less to deploy. However, it also has historically had lower bandwidth potential than FTTP. In practice, the relative advantage of fiber depends on the bandwidth available for backhaul, usage-based billing restrictions that prevent full use of last-mile capabilities, and customer premises equipment and maintenance restrictions, and the cost of running fiber that can vary widely with geography and building type.
In the United States and Canada, the largest deployment of FTTC was carried out by BellSouth Telecommunications. With the acquisition of BellSouth by AT&T, deployment of FTTC will end. Future deployments will be based on either FTTN or FTTP. Existing FTTC plant may be removed and replaced with FTTP. Verizon, meanwhile, announced in March 2010 they were winding down Verizon FiOS expansion, concentrating on completing their network in areas that already had FiOS franchises but were not deploying to new areas, suggesting that FTTH was uneconomic beyond these areas.
Verizon also announced (at CES 2010) its entry into the smart home and power utility data management arenas, indicating it was considering using P1901-based FTTC or some other existing-wire approach to reach into homes, and access additional revenues from the secure AES-128 bandwidth required for advanced metering infrastructure. However, the largest 1Gbit/s deployment in the United States, in Chattanooga, Tennessee, despite being conducted by power utility EPB, was FTTH rather than FTTC, reaching every subscriber in a 600-square-mile area. Monthly pricing of $350 reflected this generally high cost of deployment. However, Chattanooga EPB has reduced the monthly pricing to $70/month.
Historically, both telephone and cable companies avoided hybrid networks using several different transports from their point of presence into customer premises. The increased competitive cost pressure, availability of three different existing wire solutions, smart grid deployment requirements (as in Chattanooga), and better hybrid networking tools (with major vendors like Alcatel-Lucent and Qualcomm Atheros, and Wi-Fi solutions for edge networks, IEEE 1905 and IEEE 802.21 protocol efforts and SNMP improvements) all make FTTC deployments more likely in areas uneconomic to serve with FTTP/FTTH. In effect FTTC serves as a halfway measure between fixed wireless and FTTH, with special advantages for smart appliances and electric vehicles that rely on PLC use already.
FTTP (fiber-to-the-premises): This term is used either as a blanket term for both FTTH and FTTB, or where the fiber network includes both homes and small businesses.
Fiber to the premises (FTTP) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery, in which an optical fiber is run in an optical distribution network from the central office all the way to the premises occupied by the subscriber. The term "FTTP" has become ambiguous and may also refer to FTTC where the fiber terminates at a utility pole without reaching the premises.
Fiber to the premises can be categorized according to where the optical fiber ends:
- FTTH (fiber-to-the-home) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery that reaches one living or working space. The fiber extends from the central office to the subscriber's living or working space. Once at the subscriber's living or working space, the signal may be conveyed throughout the space using any means, including twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless, power line communication, or optical fiber.
- FTTB (fiber-to-the-building or -basement) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery that necessarily applies only to those properties that contain multiple living or working spaces. The optical fiber terminates before actually reaching the subscribers living or working space itself, but does extend to the property containing that living or working space. The signal is conveyed the final distance using any non-optical means, including twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless, or power line communication.
An apartment building may provide an example of the distinction between FTTH and FTTB. If a fiber is run to a panel inside each subscriber's apartment unit, it is FTTH. If instead the fiber goes only as far as the apartment building's shared electrical room (either only to the ground floor or to each floor), it is FTTB.
- ISDN2 Digital Standard
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. ISDN2 Digital Standard can have a maximum of two channels and up to nine multiple subscriber numbers.
- ISDN2 Digital System
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. ISDN2 Digital Systems have a maximum of 5 slots (including the main number) for DDIs and SNDDIs. The ranges can be anything from 10 to 2000 if needed in each slot and the 5 slots can be any variation of DDIs or SNDDIs.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 30 and ISDN2 are almost identical functionality wise. ISDN2e is supplied in multiples of two lines which can be expanded further in multiples of two, but each expansion requires an engineer’s visit and system programming (2 weeks lead time). If you require 6 lines or less on your telephone system and it is likely that this figure will not increase, then ISDN2e will usually suffice. However, for larger organisations or, if you intend to expand your telecoms operation in the future then the correct solution is probably an ISDN30e as these can be installed with minimum of 8 channels and a maximum of 30 which is a significant increase over the ISDN2. ISDN30 have a maximum of 5 slots (including the main number) for DDIs and SNDDIs. The ranges can be anything from 10 to 2000 if needed in each slot, and the 5 slots can be any variation of DDIs or SNDDIs.
A Jumper is a piece of equipment located at the exchange which connects the line at the MDF.
A knowledge-based system (KBS) is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems. LCC and it's supply partners use KBD (Knowledge based Diagnostics) to help trace the root cause of communications problems.
A knowledge-based system (KBS) is a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems. A more specific definition of the domain restricts it to expert systems (ES) (frequently called knowledge-based systems). Although the terms sound very general, actually they have acquired a very technical, restricted meaning of referring to narrow set of computer systems fulfilling quite rigid conditions. Such definition is not representative of cornucopia of knowledge intensive applications and technologies flooding the digital world. A more general view regards KBS as an area of engineering dealing with digitizing knowledge and building knowledge intensive systems in general, beyond more conservative ES. The more general view extends and generalizes the definition of knowledge-based systems.LCC and it's supply partners use KBD (Knowledge based Diagnostics) to help trace the root cause of communications problems.
‘Keeping the Customer Informed’ are alerts sent from Openreach to keep us informed on the progress of the order and its updates.
- Lead Fault
When a common fault has been identified, a Lead Fault is then placed. This is where all the current updates are added to regarding the fault's progress.
- Line Plant